Top 10 reasons for NoSQL with MySQL

on

As you know, one of the great new feature in MySQL 8.0 is the Document Store. Now with MySQL you can store your JSON documents in collections and manage them using CRUD operations. NoSQL is now part of MySQL ! Instead of a mix of MongoDB and MySQL, now you can eliminate MongoDB and consolidate with MySQL ! 🙂

This is a historical meeting of NoSQL and SQL in the same database server!

To use MySQL 8.0 as Document Store, you need to have the X plugin installed (by default since 8.0.11). This plugin enables the X DevAPI that offers a modern programming interface. Clients that communicate with a MySQL Server using the X Protocol can use the X DevAPI to develop applications. The X Protocol allows then a more flexible connectivity between those clients and the server. It supports both SQL and NoSQL API and can perform non-blocking asynchronous calls.

Of course all connectors provided by MySQL and some very popular like for PHP are already compatible with the new X protocol.

Let’s see an overview of the main top 10 reasons you should consider using NoSQL with MySQL too:

  1. MySQL cares about your data ! NoSQL full ACID compliant
  2. CRUD operations (SQL is not mandatory anymore)
  3. Schemaless
  4. Documents can have the benefit of Data Integrity
  5. Allows SQL (very important for analytics)
  6. no 16MB limitation for Document
  7. Simplest query syntax
  8. Security
  9. Simplify your DB infrastructure
  10. your MySQL DBA already knows how to manage/tune/scale MySQL

and more…

  • Lots of instrumentation
  • Makes ORM obsolete
  • MySQL Shell

 

1. MySQL cares about your data ! NoSQL full ACID compliant

Unlike traditional NoSQL databases, MySQL is full ACID (Atomicity, Consistency, Isolation and Durability) compliant. Most of the time NoSQL databases are pointed because they lack Durability for example. This means that sometimes data can be lost after a crash. Indeed, Consistency is also not guaranteed. As the MySQL Document Store relies on the InnoDB Storage Engine, the Document Store benefits from InnoDB’s strength & robustness. By default, out-of-the-box, InnoDB is full Durable and once data is acknowledged as committed, it won’t be loss:

  • innodb_flush_log_at_trx_commit = 1
  • innodb_doublewrite = ON
  • sync_binlog = 1

But MySQL Document Store also supports the Atomicity and Isolation as transactions are also supported !

Let me illustrate this to you:

MySQL [localhost+ ssl/docstore] JS> db.users.find()
[
    {
        "_id": "00005ad754c90000000000000001", 
        "name": "lefred"
    }
]
1 document in set (0.0109 sec)

MySQL [localhost+ ssl/docstore] JS> session.startTransaction()
Query OK, 0 rows affected (0.0069 sec)

MySQL [localhost+ ssl/docstore] JS> db.users.add({name: 'dim0'})
Query OK, 1 item affected (0.0442 sec)

MySQL [localhost+ ssl/docstore] JS> db.users.find().fields('name')
[
    {
        "name": "lefred"
    },
    {
        "name": "dim0"
    }
]
2 documents in set (0.0579 sec)

MySQL [localhost+ ssl/docstore] JS> session.rollback()
Query OK, 0 rows affected (0.1201 sec)

MySQL [localhost+ ssl/docstore] JS> db.users.find().fields('name')
[
    {
        "name": "lefred"
    }
]
1 document in set (0.0004 sec)

As you can see transactions are supported in MySQL using an easy semantic.

2. CRUD operations (SQL is not mandatory anymore)

With the new MySQL Document Store and the X protocol, we have introduced new operations to manage collections and/or relational tables. Those operations are called CRUD (Create, Read, Update, Delete) operations and they allow you to manage data without writing a single line of SQL.

We have of course differentiated the CRUD operation in 2 groups, one to operate on Collections and one to operate on Tables:

CRUD functions on Collection CRUD functions on Tables
add() : CollectionInsertObj insert() : InsertObj
find() : CollectionFindObj select() : SelectObj
modify() : CollectionUpdateObj update() : UpdateObj
remove() : CollectionDeleteObj delete() : DeleteObj

You already saw in the above example how to use find() and add().

3. Schemaless

MySQL Document Store brings to you the new universe of schemaless data. Indeed, when storing documents, you don’t need to know all the attributes in advance, you can always modify the document later if you want to. As you don’t need to focus on table design, you don’t need to take care of normalization, foreign keys and constraints or even datatypes. This allows you to have a very quick initial development. As those are documents are dynamic, schema migration is also not a problem anymore and large ALTER statements can be forgotten.

For example, let’s use the following data:

MySQL [localhost+ ssl/docstore] JS> db.users.find()
[
    {
        "_id": "00005ad754c90000000000000001", 
        "name": "lefred"
    },
    {
        "_id": "00005ad754c90000000000000003", 
        "name": "dim0"
    },
    {
        "_id": "00005ad754c90000000000000004", 
        "name": "Dave"
    },
    {
        "_id": "00005ad754c90000000000000005", 
        "name": "Luis"
    },
    {
        "_id": "00005ad754c90000000000000006", 
        "name": "Sunny"
    }
]
5 documents in set (0.0007 sec)

Now let’s imagine that we want to add a new attribute for all the users, you can do it without having to run an ALTER statement:

MySQL [localhost+ ssl/docstore] JS> db.users.modify('1').set('department', 'development')
Query OK, 5 items affected (0.1910 sec)

Let’s verify one of the records:

MySQL [localhost+ ssl/docstore] JS> db.users.find("name = 'Sunny'")
[
    {
        "_id": "00005ad754c90000000000000006", 
        "department": "development", 
        "name": "Sunny"
    }
]
1 document in set (0.0005 sec)

So having such possibility, provides more freedom to developers to maintain how they write documents and they don’t rely on an operational team that needs to run large alter statements.

4. Documents can have the benefit of Data Integrity

Even if schemaless is very important, sometimes people wants to force data integrity. With MySQL Document Store, constraints and foreign keys can be created and maintained for documents too.

This is an example where we have two collections: users and departments, and we created a GENERATED STORED columns to use as foreign key:

MySQL [localhost+ ssl/docstore] SQL> alter table departments add column dept varchar(20) generated always as (doc->>"$.name") STORED ;
Query OK, 2 rows affected (0.3633 sec)

MySQL [localhost+ ssl/docstore] SQL> alter table users add column dept varchar(20) generated always as (doc->>"$.department") STORED ;
Query OK, 5 rows affected (0.1302 sec)

MySQL [localhost+ ssl/docstore] SQL> select * from users;
+---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------+------------------------------+-------------+
| doc                                                                                   | _id                          | dept        |
+---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------+------------------------------+-------------+
| {"_id": "00005ad754c90000000000000001", "name": "lefred", "department": "community"}  | 00005ad754c90000000000000001 | community   |
| {"_id": "00005ad754c90000000000000003", "name": "dim0", "department": "community"}    | 00005ad754c90000000000000003 | community   |
| {"_id": "00005ad754c90000000000000004", "name": "Dave", "department": "community"}    | 00005ad754c90000000000000004 | community   |
| {"_id": "00005ad754c90000000000000005", "name": "Luis", "department": "development"}  | 00005ad754c90000000000000005 | development |
| {"_id": "00005ad754c90000000000000006", "name": "Sunny", "department": "development"} | 00005ad754c90000000000000006 | development |
+---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------+------------------------------+-------------+
5 rows in set (0.0010 sec)

MySQL [localhost+ ssl/docstore] SQL> select * from departments;
+------------------------------------------------------------------------------------+------------------------------+-------------+
| doc                                                                                | _id                          | dept        |
+------------------------------------------------------------------------------------+------------------------------+-------------+
| {"_id": "00005ad754c90000000000000007", "name": "development", "manager": "Tomas"} | 00005ad754c90000000000000007 | development |
| {"_id": "00005ad754c90000000000000008", "name": "community", "manager": "Andrew"}  | 00005ad754c90000000000000008 | community   |
+------------------------------------------------------------------------------------+------------------------------+-------------+
2 rows in set (0.0004 sec)

Let’s add some index on these new columns:

MySQL [localhost+ ssl/docstore] SQL> alter table users add index dept_idx(dept);
Query OK, 0 rows affected (0.0537 sec)

MySQL [localhost+ ssl/docstore] SQL> alter table departments add index dept_idx(dept);
Query OK, 0 rows affected (0.1278 sec)

And now, let’s create the constraint, I want that if I delete a departments, all users from that departments get removed:

MySQL [localhost+ ssl/docstore] SQL> alter table users add foreign key (dept) references departments(dept) on delete cascade;
Query OK, 5 rows affected (0.2401 sec)

MySQL [localhost+ ssl/docstore] SQL> delete from departments where doc->>"$.manager" like 'Andrew';
Query OK, 1 row affected (0.1301 sec)

MySQL [localhost+ ssl/docstore] SQL> select * from departments;
+------------------------------------------------------------------------------------+------------------------------+-------------+
| doc | _id | dept |
+------------------------------------------------------------------------------------+------------------------------+-------------+
| {"_id": "00005ad754c90000000000000007", "name": "development", "manager": "Tomas"} | 00005ad754c90000000000000007 | development |
+------------------------------------------------------------------------------------+------------------------------+-------------+
1 row in set (0.0007 sec)

MySQL [localhost+ ssl/docstore] SQL> select * from users;
+---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------+------------------------------+-------------+
| doc | _id | dept |
+---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------+------------------------------+-------------+
| {"_id": "00005ad754c90000000000000005", "name": "Luis", "department": "development"} | 00005ad754c90000000000000005 | development |
| {"_id": "00005ad754c90000000000000006", "name": "Sunny", "department": "development"} | 00005ad754c90000000000000006 | development |
+---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------+------------------------------+-------------+
2 rows in set (0.0006 sec)

So as you can see, it’s possible and very easy to implement foreign key constraints to enhance data integrity.

5. Allows SQL (very important for analytics)

As you could see in the previous points, it’s possible to mix SQL and NoSQL and go from one to the other one and back using MySQL Shell. Sometimes the good old SQL is still very useful and I predict him still a long life. SQL is not yet ready to retire completely… or at least not for all operations.

In fact how I see things is that developers of the front-end will just use NoSQL to create and consume data that see as objects and those working more in the back-office will  keep using SQL to create reports and analytics .

To illustrate to power of MySQL with Documents, I will use the popular restaurant example collection from another popular NoSQL solution.

This is an example of document stored in the collection:

MySQL [localhost+ ssl/docstore] JS> db.restaurants.find().limit(1)
[
    {
        "_id": "5ad5b645f88c5bb8fe3fd337", 
        "address": {
            "building": "1007", 
            "coord": [
                -73.856077,
                40.848447
            ], 
            "street": "Morris Park Ave", 
            "zipcode": "10462"
        }, 
        "borough": "Bronx", 
        "cuisine": "Bakery", 
        "grades": [
            {
                "date": "2014-03-03T00:00:00Z", 
                "grade": "A", 
                "score": 2
            },
            {
                "date": "2013-09-11T00:00:00Z", 
                "grade": "A", 
                "score": 6
            },
            {
                "date": "2013-01-24T00:00:00Z", 
                "grade": "A", 
                "score": 10
            },
            {
                "date": "2011-11-23T00:00:00Z", 
                "grade": "A", 
                "score": 9
            },
            {
                "date": "2011-03-10T00:00:00Z", 
                "grade": "B", 
                "score": 14
            }
        ], 
        "name": "Morris Park Bake Shop", 
        "restaurant_id": "30075445"
    }
]

You can see that a restaurant can be graded and that of course has also a style of cuisine.

One easy query we could try to find the result is : What is the average grade for each restaurant ? (and limit the result to 10)

MySQL [localhost+ ssl/docstore] SQL> SELECT name, cuisine, avg(rating) FROM restaurants,
                                  -> JSON_TABLE(doc, "$" columns(name varchar(100) path "$.name",
                                  ->            cuisine varchar(100) path "$.cuisine",
                                  ->            nested path "$.grades[*]"
                                  ->              columns (rating int path "$.score")))
                                  -> AS jt GROUP BY name, cuisine LIMIT 10;
+--------------------------------+---------------------------------+-------------+
| name                           | cuisine                         | avg(rating) |
+--------------------------------+---------------------------------+-------------+
| Morris Park Bake Shop          | Bakery                          |      8.2000 |
| Wendy'S                        | Hamburgers                      |      9.4404 |
| Dj Reynolds Pub And Restaurant | Irish                           |      9.2500 |
| Riviera Caterer                | American                        |      9.0000 |
| Tov Kosher Kitchen             | Jewish/Kosher                   |     17.7500 |
| Brunos On The Boulevard        | American                        |     17.0000 |
| Kosher Island                  | Jewish/Kosher                   |     10.5000 |
| Wilken'S Fine Food             | Delicatessen                    |     10.0000 |
| Regina Caterers                | American                        |      9.6000 |
| Taste The Tropics Ice Cream    | Ice Cream, Gelato, Yogurt, Ices |      8.2500 |
+--------------------------------+---------------------------------+-------------+
10 rows in set, 13 warnings (1.5114 sec)

Wanna see something even more cool ? Okay !

How easily would you answer this question in other Document Stores: Give me the 10 best restaurants but they all must be from a different cuisine ! (this means that if the two best restaurants are 2 Italians one, I only want to see the best of the two and the next restaurant in the list should be the third is it doesn’t server Italian food).

In MySQL 8.0 Document Store we can achieve this with one query using a Common Table Expression (CTE):

MySQL [localhost+ ssl/docstore] SQL> WITH cte AS (SELECT doc->>"$.name" AS name, 
                                  ->                     doc->>"$.cuisine" AS cuisine,
                                  ->  (SELECT AVG(score) FROM JSON_TABLE(doc, "$.grades[*]"
                                  ->   COLUMNS (score INT PATH "$.score")) AS r) AS avg_score
                                  ->   FROM restaurants)
                                  ->  SELECT *, RANK() OVER (PARTITION BY cuisine ORDER BY
                                  ->  avg_score) AS `rank`
                                  -> FROM cte ORDER BY `rank`, avg_score DESC LIMIT 10;
+------------------------------------------+------------------+-----------+------+
| name                                     | cuisine          | avg_score | rank |
+------------------------------------------+------------------+-----------+------+
| Ravagh Persian Grill                     | Iranian          |   15.6667 |    1 |
| Camaradas El Barrio                      | Polynesian       |   14.6000 |    1 |
| Ellary'S Greens                          | Californian      |   12.0000 |    1 |
| General Assembly                         | Hawaiian         |   11.7500 |    1 |
| Catfish                                  | Cajun            |    9.0000 |    1 |
| Kopi Kopi                                | Indonesian       |    8.6667 |    1 |
| Hospoda                                  | Czech            |    7.8000 |    1 |
| Ihop                                     | Pancakes/Waffles |    7.2000 |    1 |
| New Fresco Toetillas Tommy'S Kitchen Inc | Chinese/Cuban    |    7.0000 |    1 |
| Snowdonia Pub                            | English          |    7.0000 |    1 |
+------------------------------------------+------------------+-----------+------+
10 rows in set, 13 warnings (1.4284 sec)

Cool isn’t it ? So SQL is not mandatory anymore but it can still help. You can also do much more, like joining Documents with Relational Tables, etc… and of course don’t forget the large panel of JSON functions our engineers have implemented.

6. 16MB limitation for Document

Unlike some other NoSQL solution, MySQL doesn’t limit the size of a document to 16MB. We were very surprised about the large amount of users complaining about this limitation.. but now they have a solution: MySQL !

A single document in MySQL Document Store can have a size of 1GB ! It’s limited by the size of max_allowed_packet.

So if you have very large documents, MySQL is the best solution for you. In MySQL 8.0 we also improved how MySQL deals with such large documents. InnoDB implemented JSON partial updates and the replication team implemented Partial JSON for binary logs.

7. Simplest query syntax

The goal of MySQL Document Store is not to be a drop-in replacement for MongoDB even if it’s very easy to migrate data out of it to MySQL. The goal of the new CRUD API is to provide to developers the most easy way to write application without having to deal too much with the database backend and be able to query that data in the easiest way possible. Therefor, MySQL uses a very simple syntax to query your documents stored in MySQL 8.0.

Let’s compare the same query in MongoDB and MySQL:

First in MongoDB:

> db.restaurants.find({"cuisine": "French", 
     "borough": { $not: /^Manhattan/} },
     {"_id":0, "name": 1,"cuisine": 1, "borough": 1}).limit(2)
{ "borough" : "Queens", "cuisine" : "French", 
  "name" : "La Baraka Restaurant" }
{ "borough" : "Queens", "cuisine" : "French", 
   "name" : "Air France Lounge" }

So what does that mean ? Check first in MySQL:

MySQL [localhost+ ssl/docstore] JS> restaurants.find("cuisine='French' AND borough!='Manhattan'").fields(["name","cuisine","borough"]).limit(2)
[
    {
        "borough": "Queens", 
        "cuisine": "French", 
        "name": "La Baraka Restaurant"
    },
    {
        "borough": "Queens", 
        "cuisine": "French", 
        "name": "Air France Lounge"
    }
]
2 documents in set (0.0853 sec)

More obvious isn’t it ? That’s why we used that syntax !

8. Security

MySQL Document Store is by default already very secure: strong root password, password policy, roles, SSL. Several backups solutions are also available

Those days, when you install and start a MySQL instances, an SSL certificate will be created to communicate with the clients on a secure link. Also the super privilege user (root) will automatically have a strong password that will be stored in the error log and it must be changed at the first login. The new password will have to follow some security rules that are also enabled by default.

2018-06-14T12:47:55.120634Z 5 [Note] [MY-010454] [Server] A temporary password is generated for root@localhost: (hdirvypB1iw

So we can use that password to connect and set it do what we want:

[root@mysql3 mysql]# mysqlsh root@127.0.0.1
Creating a session to 'root@127.0.0.1'
Enter password: ************
Fetching schema names for autocompletion... Press ^C to stop.
Error during auto-completion cache update: You must reset your password using ALTER USER statement before executing this statement.
Your MySQL connection id is 0 (X protocol)
No default schema selected; type \use  to set one.
MySQL Shell 8.0.11

Copyright (c) 2016, 2018, Oracle and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.

Oracle is a registered trademark of Oracle Corporation and/or its
affiliates. Other names may be trademarks of their respective
owners.

Type '\help' or '\?' for help; '\quit' to exit.

MySQL [127.0.0.1+] JS> session.sql('set password="MyV3ryStr0gP4ssw0rd%"')
Query OK, 0 rows affected (0.3567 sec)

Now we can quit and login again and this time you can see the prompt changed to notify we are using SSL. We can verify this very easily:

[root@mysql3 mysql]# mysqlsh root@127.0.0.1
Creating a session to 'root@127.0.0.1'
Enter password: ****
Fetching schema names for autocompletion... Press ^C to stop.
Your MySQL connection id is 9 (X protocol)
Server version: 8.0.11 MySQL Community Server - GPL
No default schema selected; type \use  to set one.
MySQL Shell 8.0.11

Copyright (c) 2016, 2018, Oracle and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.

Oracle is a registered trademark of Oracle Corporation and/or its
affiliates. Other names may be trademarks of their respective
owners.

Type '\help' or '\?' for help; '\quit' to exit.


MySQL [127.0.0.1+ ssl] JS> \s
MySQL Shell version 8.0.11

Session type:                 X
Connection Id:                9
Default schema:               
Current schema:               
Current user:                 root@localhost
SSL:                          Cipher in use: DHE-RSA-AES128-GCM-SHA256 TLSv1.2
Using delimiter:              ;
Server version:               8.0.11 MySQL Community Server - GPL
Protocol version:             X protocol
Client library:               8.0.11
Connection:                   127.0.0.1 via TCP/IP
TCP port:                     33060
Server characterset:          utf8mb4
Schema characterset:          utf8mb4
Client characterset:          utf8mb4
Conn. characterset:           utf8mb4
Uptime:                       7 min 9.0000 sec

And if you are looking for other security features, please check MySQL Enterprise Edition.

9. Simplify your DB infrastructure

Instead of having to maintain multiple systems and often have duplicate data that is transferred from one system to another one, as MySQL Document Store can do SQL and NoSQL this is a valid alternative to consolidate your RDBMS and your NoSQL DB.

Also, as already explained, you can mix Tables and Collections or run complex queries against your Documents. Additionally if you really want to split your systems but with the same data, it’s possible to rely on the very popular and strong MySQL replication. Easy HA architecture is also possible using MySQL InnoDB Cluster.

10. Your MySQL DBA already knows how to manage/tune/scale MySQL

And finally,  if your team already manages MySQL instances and you want (or need) to use NoSQL, what more simple than just use the CRUD operations of MySQL 8.0 and keep using all your known procedures to maintain your infrastructure. Same backups, same monitoring, same way to  troubleshoot eventual problems.

There is no need to invest in new team or knowledge to maintain yet another system.

MySQL 8.0 Document Store offers you the best of both worlds and makes also both developers and DBA/OPS happy.

I really encourage you to test it asap and don’t hesitate to send us your feedback !

3 thoughts on “Top 10 reasons for NoSQL with MySQL

    1. Hi Bill,
      Thank you for your comment (and your slides). Of course there are always tips and tricks depending on the data. I wanted to highlight that it’s possible do have such constraint in MySQL with JSON documents 😉
      Cheers,
      lefred

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *

This site uses Akismet to reduce spam. Learn how your comment data is processed.

recent

Last Tweets

Locations of visitors to this page
categories